laryngospasm scenario

Classification and Types of Submersion Injuries and Drowning Scenarios. In the study by von Ungern-Sternberg et al. Past medical history was unremarkable except for an episode of upper respiratory tract infection 4 weeks ago. A 10-month-old boy (8.5 kg body weight) was taken to the operating room (at 11:00 PM), without premedication, for emergency surgery of an abscess of the second fingertip on the right hand. Laryngospasms that are caused by other conditions like asthma, stress or hypersensitivity arent usually dangerous or life-threatening. This means that if nothing has occurred 46 h after the occurrence of a laryngospasm it is likely that the course will be uneventful. font-weight: normal; They are most likely located in the medullary neuronal network rather than in the brainstem.2223The higher center seems to regulate upper airway reflexes. Here are some important features to keep in mind: Complete blockage may present as just apnea; Can be preceded by high-pitched inspiratory stridor, followed by complete airway obstruction The afferent nerve involved in laryngeal closure reflex is the superior laryngeal nerve. ANESTHESIOLOGY 2010; 12:98592, McGaghie WC: Medical education research as translational science. The video and the script are intended to illustrate the proper application of the management algorithm, to illustrate the technical and the nontechnical skills required in clinical practice, and to be a resource for the readers who wish to develop their own training sessions. Call for help early. tracheal tug, indrawing), vomiting or desaturation. We decided to omit it in the preventive and/or treatment algorithms of laryngospasm, although other authors have included it.3,8,66. This scenario illustrates the potential risks of not managing your resources properly. More children who developed laryngospasm were successfully treated with chest compression (73.9%) compared with those managed with the standard method (38.4%; P< 0.001). Copyright 2012, the American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc. Perianesthetic Management of Laryngospasm in Children, A Tool to Screen Patients for Obstructive Sleep Apnea, ACE (Anesthesiology Continuing Education), https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e318242aae9, 2023 American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines for Preoperative Fasting: Carbohydrate-containing Clear Liquids with or without Protein, Chewing Gum, and Pediatric Fasting DurationA Modular Update of the 2017 American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines for Preoperative Fasting, 2023 American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines for Monitoring and Antagonism of Neuromuscular Blockade: A Report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Neuromuscular Blockade, 2022 American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines for Management of the Difficult Airway, Perianesthetic Dental Injuries : Frequency, Outcomes, and Risk Factors, Understanding the Mechanics of Laryngospasm Is Crucial for Proper Treatment, Fentanyl Does Not Reduce the Incidence of Laryngospasm in Children Anesthetized with Sevoflurane. } In contrast, results from studies in children with recent URIs have shown that LMA was associated with an increased occurrence of laryngospasm.28,32In a recent, large, prospective study, the incidence of laryngospasm was increased after direct stimulation of the upper airway by both LMA and ETT in comparison with a facemask.5Therefore, LMA may be considered more stimulating than the facemask but certainly less than the ETT. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 2005; 19:71732, McGaghie WC, Issenberg SB, Petrusa ER, Scalese RJ: A critical review of simulation-based medical education research: 20032009. CPAP = continuous positive airway pressure; FiO2= fractional inspired oxygen tension; IM = intramuscular; PACU = postanesthesia care unit. 1. Elsevier; 2022. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Elsevier; 2021. https://www.clinicalkey.com. ANESTHESIOLOGY 2005; 103:11428, Patel RI, Hannallah RS, Norden J, Casey WF, Verghese ST: Emergence airway complications in children: A comparison of tracheal extubation in awake and deeply anesthetized patients. Lancet 2010; 376:77383, Murat I, Constant I, Maud'huy H: Perioperative anaesthetic morbidity in children: A database of 24,165 anaesthetics over a 30-month period. . He is one of the founders of theFOAMmovement (Free Open-Access Medical education) and is co-creator oflitfl.com,theRAGE podcast, theResuscitologycourse, and theSMACCconference. His one great achievement is being the father of three amazing children. information and will only use or disclose that information as set forth in our notice of To avoid significant morbidity and mortality, the use of a structured algorithm has been proposed.8,70One study suggests that if correctly applied, a combined core algorithm recommended for the diagnosis and management of laryngospasm would have led to earlier recognition and/or better management in 16% of the cases.70These results should encourage physicians to implement their own structured algorithm for the diagnosis and management of laryngospasm in children in their institutions. Nov. 7, 2021. Vocal cord dysfunction. These results are in accordance with a study showing that subhypnotic doses of propofol (0.5 mg/kg) decreased the likelihood of laryngospasm upon tracheal extubation in children undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy.50Lower doses of propofol (0.25 mg/kg) have also been used successfully to relax the larynx in a small series.51It should be noted that few data are available regarding the use of propofol to treat laryngospasm in younger age groups (younger than 3 yr). #mc-embedded-subscribe-form .mc_fieldset { He coordinates the Alfred ICUs education and simulation programmes and runs the units educationwebsite,INTENSIVE. } Drowning is an international public health problem that has been complicated by . width: auto; Portuguese. Rarely, negative pressure pulmonary edema may occur and requires specific treatment.37The high chest wall to lung compliance ratio observed during infancy, which disappears by the second year of life because of increased chest wall stiffness, may explain why negative pressure pulmonary edema is less frequent in infants than in older children or adults. As they correctly point out, laryngospasm is a serious complication and must be promptly managed to avoid serious physiological disturbance. Perianesthetic Management of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, Copyright 2023 American Society of Anesthesiologists. If IV access cannot be established in emergency, succinylcholine may be given by an alternative route.5354Intramuscular succinylcholine has been recommended at doses ranging from 1.5 to 4 mg/kg.53The main drawback of intramuscular administration is the slow onset in comparison with the IV route. ANESTHESIOLOGY 2010; 113:2007, Roy WL, Lerman J: Laryngospasm in paediatric anaesthesia. The locations of involved nerve receptors vary as a function of the upper airway reflex: pharyngeal mucosa for the swallowing reflex, supraglottic larynx for laryngeal closure reflex,19larynx and trachea for cough, and any part of the upper airway (but mainly nose and larynx) for apnea. , at the condyles of the ascending rami of the mandible, then its efficacy would be improved. Acid reflux may cause a few drops of stomach acid backwash to touch the vocal cords, setting off the spasm. He is retaining oxygen saturations > 94 percent. A computer-aided incidence study in 136,929 patients Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1984; 28:56775, Burgoyne LL, Anghelescu DL: Intervention steps for treating laryngospasm in pediatric patients. The patient will then develop worsened hypotension, requiring the start of an epinephrine infusion. Laryngospasm is a sudden spasm of the vocal cords. Stimulation of upper airway mucosa also produces cardiovascular (alterations of the arterial pressure, bradycardia, etc.) An example of such a simulation-training scenario of a laryngospasm, including a description of the session and the debriefing, can be found in the appendix. Airway simulators and high fidelity mannequins are important teaching tools.73Simple bench models, airway mannequins, and virtual reality simulators can be used to learn and practice basic and complex technical skills. The purpose of this case scenario is to highlight key points essential for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of laryngospasm occurring during anesthesia. ANESTHESIOLOGY 1998; 89:12934, Reber A, Paganoni R, Frei FJ: Effect of common airway manoeuvres on upper airway dimensions and clinical signs in anaesthetized, spontaneously breathing children. Anesthesia was induced by a resident under the direct supervision of a senior anesthesiologist with inhaled sevoflurane in a 50/50% (5 l/min) mixture of oxygen and nitrous oxide. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. Laryngospasm Administer 100% oxygen via nasal mask Suction the oropharynx, hypopharynx, and nasopharynx with a tonsil suction tip Suction/remove all blood, saliva, and foreign material from the oral cavity Pack the surgical site to prevent bleeding into the hypopharynx Draw the tongue and/or mandible forward Inexperience of the anesthetist is also associated with an increased incidence of laryngospasm and perioperative respiratory adverse events.2,5,18Some factors are associated with a lower risk of laryngospasm: IV induction, airway management with facemask, and inhalational maintenance of anesthesia.5Induction and emergence from anesthesia are the most critical periods. Pediatr Emerg Care 1990; 6:1089, Woolf RL, Crawford MW, Choo SM: Dose-response of rocuronium bromide in children anesthetized with propofol: A comparison with succinylcholine. Anaesthesia 2008; 63:3649, Bruppacher HR, Alam SK, LeBlanc VR, Latter D, Naik VN, Savoldelli GL, Mazer CD, Kurrek MM, Joo HS: Simulation-based training improves physicians' performance in patient care in high-stakes clinical setting of cardiac surgery. The final decision depends on the severity of the laryngospasm (i.e. Identifying the risk factors and planning appropriate anesthetic management is a rational approach to reduce laryngospasm incidence and severity. Laryngospasm is identied by varying degrees of airway obstruction with paradoxical chest move-ment, intercostal recession and tracheal tug. } have demonstrated an increased risk for laryngospasm only when cold symptoms are present the day of surgery or less than 2 weeks before (table 2).5Therefore, for children who present for elective procedures with a temperature higher than 38C, mucopurulent airway secretions, or lower respiratory tract signs such as wheezing and moist cough, surgery is usually postponed. In the recent analysis of 189 reports of laryngospasm to the Australian Incident Monitoring Study, one in three patients suffered significant physiological disturbance. If you have any of the conditions listed above, talk to your healthcare provider about ways to reduce your risk for laryngospasms. Anesth Analg 1991; 73:26670, Rachel Homer J, Elwood T, Peterson D, Rampersad S: Risk factors for adverse events in children with colds emerging from anesthesia: A logistic regression. In reports addressing respiratory adverse events, including laryngospasm, the overall incidence of perioperative respiratory events as well as the incidence of laryngospasm was higher in 01-yr-old infants in comparison with older children.2,5,,7The risk of perioperative respiratory adverse event was quoted as decreasing by 8% for each increasing year of age.2A recent large cohort study confirmed this inverse relationship between age and risk of perioperative respiratory adverse events.5This study showed that the relative risk for perioperative respiratory adverse events, particularly laryngospasm, decreased by 11% for each yearly increase in age.5. There is a need to fill this knowledge gap and to answer questions about what types of clinical education and what type of management algorithm result in better outcome. The anesthesiologist assesses that the head/neck could be placed in a more ideal position . So, treatment often involves finding ways to stay calm during the episode. SimBaby is a tetherless simulator designed to help healthcare providers effectively recognize and respond to critically ill pediatric patients. Paediatr Anaesth 2007; 17:15461, Guglielminotti J, Constant I, Murat I: Evaluation of routine tracheal extubation in children: Inflating or suctioning technique? Anesthesiology 2012; 116:458471 doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e318242aae9. A competence-based training that includes a structured curriculum and regular workplace-based assessment may help mitigate the effects of caseload reduction. Mayo Clinic Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Mayo Clinic School of Continuous Professional Development, Mayo Clinic School of Graduate Medical Education. There is controversy in the literature regarding the use of inhalational or IV induction agents and associated risk of laryngospasm. GERD: Can certain medications make it worse? If this happens to you, talk to your healthcare provider. Do Children Who Experience Laryngospasm Have an Increased Risk of Upper Respiratory Tract Infection? Hold your breath for five seconds, then repeat until the laryngospasm stops. To confirm the diagnosis, your healthcare provider may look at your vocal cords with a laryngeal endoscope. The authors also thank Frank Schneider (Editing Coordinator, Division of Communication and Marketing of the Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva University Hospitals) and Justine Giliberto (Editing, Division of Communication and Marketing of the Geneva University Hospitals) for editing the video material. For example, you might be able to exhale and cough, but have difficulty breathing in. Mayo Clinic. There are data supporting the efficacy of structured courses that integrate airway trainers and high fidelity simulation for airway management training.7677Recent evidence also supports the transfer of technical and nontechnical skills acquired during simulation to the clinical setting.78We therefore strongly encourage the integration of simulation-based training for pediatric airway management, including for the management of laryngospasm. Used with permission of John Wiley and Sons. It persists for a longer period in the context of respiratory syncytial virus infection, hypoxia, and anemia.21, The diagnosis of laryngospasm depends on the clinical judgment of the anesthesiologist. However, the acquisition and the mastering of these skills during specialty training and their maintenance during continuing medical education represent a formidable challenge. Even though you may feel like you cant breathe, try to remember that the episode will pass. In children with URI, the use of an endotracheal tube (ETT) may increase by 11-fold the risk of respiratory adverse events, in comparison with a facemask.11Less invasive airway management could be beneficial in children with airway hyperactivity. This content does not have an Arabic version. } If you think youve experienced laryngospasm, talk to your healthcare provider. If youve had recurring laryngospasms, you should see your healthcare provider to find out whats causing them. He created the Critically Ill Airway course and teaches on numerous courses around the world. Below a cardiac temperature of 28C, the heart may suddenly and spontaneously arrest. He is a co-founder of theAustralia and New Zealand Clinician Educator Network(ANZCEN) and is the Lead for theANZCEN Clinician Educator Incubatorprogramme. A single copy of these materials may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only. Breathe in and out through the straw without pausing between the inhale and the exhale. If youve experienced a laryngospasm, schedule an appointment with your healthcare provider. #mc-embedded-subscribe-form input[type=checkbox] { In most cases, a laryngospasm lasts for up to one minute, but it may feel much longer. He is also a Clinical Adjunct Associate Professor at Monash University. (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7361892/). The treatment includes opening and clearing the oropharynx, applying CPAP with 100% oxygen, followed by deepening of anaesthesia usually with an i.v . We use cookies on our website to give you the most relevant experience by remembering your preferences and repeat visits. But it can be a symptom of other conditions, including: Left untreated, laryngospasm caused by anesthesia can be fatal. The breathing difficulty can be alarming, but it's not life-threatening. These risk factors can be Children are more prone to laryngospasm than adults, with laryngospasm being reported more commonly in children (17.4/1,000) than in the general population (8.7/1,000).2,5,,7In fact, the incidence of laryngospasm has been found to range from 1/1,000 up to 20/100 in high-risk surgery (i.e. This function involves several upper airway reflexes: the laryngeal closure reflex, which consists of vocal fold adduction; apnea; swallowing; and coughing.19To efficiently protect the airway, laryngeal closure reflex must be coordinated with swallowing. ANESTHESIOLOGY 2001; 95:103940, Liu LM, DeCook TH, Goudsouzian NG, Ryan JF, Liu PL: Dose response to intramuscular succinylcholine in children. The purpose of this case scenario is to highlight key points essential for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of laryngospasm occurring during anesthesia. clear: left; Principal effectors are respiratory muscles (diaphragm, intercostals, abdominals, and upper airway). Alterations of upper airway reflexes may occur in several conditions. In case of sale of your personal information, you may opt out by using the link. PEEP! He is actively involved in in using translational simulation to improve patient care and the design of processes and systems at Alfred Health. Accessed Nov. 5, 2021. Airway management training, including management of laryngospasm, is an area that can significantly benefit from the use of simulators and simulation.73These tools represent alternative nonclinical training modalities and offer many advantages: individuals and teams can acquire and hone their technical and nontechnical skills without exposing patients to unnecessary risks; training and teaching can be standardized, scheduled, and repeated at regular intervals; and trainees' performances can be evaluated by an instructor who can provide constructive feedback, a critical component of learning through simulation.7475. For example, if laryngospasms are linked to GERD, then treating chronic acid reflux can also reduce your risk for laryngospasm. The cause of vocal cord spasms is often unknown, and it is usually in response to a trigger such as anxiety or acid reflux. , otolaryngology surgery).2,5,,7Many factors may increase the risk of laryngospasm. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. We strongly encourage future studies assessing the effect of training and simulation on the management of laryngospasm in children at various levels of outcomes. These cookies do not store any personal information. Paediatr Anaesth 2002; 12:7629, Tait AR, Pandit UA, Voepel-Lewis T, Munro HM, Malviya S: Use of the laryngeal mask airway in children with upper respiratory tract infections: A comparison with endotracheal intubation. Common triggers of reflex laryngeal response during anesthesia are secretions, blood, insertion of an oropharyngeal airway suction catheter, and laryngoscopy. If you or someone youre with is having a laryngospasm, you should: In addition to the techniques outlined above, there are breathing exercises that can help you through a laryngospasm. The brainstem nucleus tractus solitarius is not only an afferent portal, but has interneurons that play an essential role in the genesis of upper airway reflexes.19Little is known about the centers that regulate and program these reflexes. 5 Many high-acuity medical conditions can induce these. In the case of laryngospasm, basic appropriate airway manipulations such as chin lift, jaw thrust, and oral airway insertion in combination with CPAP can be demonstrated and practiced with these models. As a result, your airway becomes temporarily blocked, making it difficult to breathe or speak. }, #FOAMed Medical Education Resources byLITFLis licensed under aCreative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. OVERVIEW Laryngospasm is potentially life-threatening closure of the true vocal chords resulting in partial or complete airway obstruction unresponsive to airway positioning maneuvers. , partial or complete) and of the bradycardia as well as the existence of contraindication to succinylcholine. ANESTHESIOLOGY 2006; 105:4550, Meier S, Geiduschek J, Paganoni R, Fuehrmeyer F, Reber A: The effect of chin lift, jaw thrust, and continuous positive airway pressure on the size of the glottic opening and on stridor score in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing children. Paediatr Anaesth 2003; 13:437, Schreiner MS, O'Hara I, Markakis DA, Politis GD: Do children who experience laryngospasm have an increased risk of upper respiratory tract infection? J Appl Physiol 1998; 84:202035, Menon AP, Schefft GL, Thach BT: Apnea associated with regurgitation in infants. If these medications help, please consult your doctor before taking them long term. Learning breathing techniques can help you remain calm during an episode. For laryngeal closure reflex, several types of receptors can be distinguished, according to their specific sensitivities to cold, pressure, laryngeal motion, and chemical agents.19,21The chemoreceptors are sensitive to fluids with low chloride or high potassium concentrations, as well as to strong acidic or alkaline solutions.19,21. Here are a couple of techniques to try during an attack: Because laryngospasm happens suddenly without warning, theres really no way to prevent it. Undefined cookies are those that are being analyzed and have not been classified into a category as yet. display: inline; Definition. Anaesthesia 2002; 57:1036, Chung DC, Rowbottom SJ: A very small dose of suxamethonium relieves laryngospasm. Functional cookies help to perform certain functionalities like sharing the content of the website on social media platforms, collect feedbacks, and other third-party features. [Laryngospasm]. However, waiting until hypoxia opens the airway is not recommended, because a postobstruction pulmonary edema or even cardiac arrest may occur.43. Usually, laryngospasm resolves and the patient recovers quickly without any sequelae. Relative Risk (95% CI) of Laryngospasm in Children According to the Presence of Cold Symptoms, Household exposure to tobacco smoke was shown to increase the incidence of laryngospasm from 0.9% to 9.4% in children scheduled for otolaryngology and urologic surgery.12This strong association between passive exposure to tobacco smoke and airway complications in children was also observed in another large study.13. (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34817079/), Visitation, mask requirements and COVID-19 information, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To reverse laryngospasm after surgery with anesthesia, your medical team can perform treatments to relax your vocal cords and ease your symptoms. In a more recent series, the overall incidence of laryngospasm was lower8but the predominance of such incidents at a young age was still clear: 50 to 68% of cases occurred in children younger than 5 yr. Management of refractory laryngospasm. GillesA. Orliaguet, Olivier Gall, GeorgesL. Savoldelli, Vincent Couloigner, Bruno Riou; Case Scenario: Perianesthetic Management of Laryngospasm in Children. #mergeRow-gdpr { Laryngospasm is an emergency situation and must be promptly recognized. A new episode of laryngospasm was immediately suspected. Collins S, Schedler P, Veasey B, Kristofy A, McDowell M. Thereafter, surgery was quickly completed, while tracheal extubation and postoperative recovery were uneventful. Recognizing laryngospasm - laryngospasm can occur spontaneously and be life-threatening, making it important that you be able to recognize it immediately. However, if youve experienced laryngospasms in the past, your healthcare provider can determine whats causing them and find ways to reduce your risk. They can perform an examination and find out if there are ways to prevent laryngospasm from happening in the future. A simulation scenario is an artificial representation of a real-world event to achieve educational goals through experiential learning. Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit organization and proceeds from Web advertising help support our mission. On the other hand, attempts to provide positive-pressure ventilation with a facemask may distend the stomach, increasing the risk of gastric regurgitation. Laryngoscope 2006; 116:1397403, Nishino T, Hasegawa R, Ide T, Isono S: Hypercapnia enhances the development of coughing during continuous infusion of water into the pharynx. Laryngospasm is potentially life-threatening closure of the true vocal chords resulting in partial or complete airway obstruction unresponsive to airway positioning maneuvers. The goal is to slow your breathing and allow your vocal cords to relax. Case Scenario Perianesthetic Management of Laryngospasm In; Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment; Permit to Work Ensuring a Safe Work Environment Introduction Industrial Workers Face Many Hazards in Their Daily Routines; Health Surveillance Employer's Pack; Incidence and Associated Factors of Laryngospasm Among Pediatric Insufficient depth of anesthesia is one of the major causes of laryngospasm. You might experience multiple laryngospasms in a brief time but in most cases, each episode ends after about a minute. [. Although third-level studies may prove very difficult or subject to bias, first- and second-level studies are feasible but have yet to be performed for laryngospasm and pediatric airway training. Paediatr Anaesth 2004; 14:15866, Olsson GL, Hallen B: Laryngospasm during anaesthesia. padding-bottom: 0px; The progressive signs and symptoms are shivering (36C), confusion, disorientation, introversion (35C), amnesia (34C), cardiac arrhythmias (33C), clouding of consciousness (33-30C), LOC (30C), ventricular fibrillation (VF) (28C), and death (25C). PubMed PMID: 19669024. information highlighted below and resubmit the form. ANESTHESIOLOGY 1996; 85:47580, Nishino T: Physiological and pathophysiological implications of upper airway reflexes in humans. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. If breathing exercises and pushing on your laryngospasm notch dont relieve your symptoms, call 911 or head to the nearest emergency room. Muscle relaxants are usually administered when initial steps of laryngospasm treatment have failed to relax the vocal cords. For the management of laryngospasm in children, this task is complicated by two facts. TeamSTEPPS 2.0 Specialty Scenarios - 85 Specialty Scenarios OR Scenario 68 Appropriate for: All Specialties . He has completed fellowship training in both intensive care medicine and emergency medicine, as well as post-graduate training in biochemistry, clinical toxicology, clinical epidemiology, and health professional education. 14%, relative risk 1.2, 95% CI 1.11.3; P= 0.001). A detailed history should be taken to identify the risk factors. ,5emergent procedures had a moderately higher risk than elective procedures for perioperative respiratory adverse events, including laryngospasm (17%vs. He is an internationally recognised Clinician Educator with a passion for helping clinicians learn and for improving the clinical performance of individuals and collectives. Target Audience: But if you have laryngospasms often, you should schedule an appointment with your healthcare provider. Anesthesia was then maintained by facemask with 2.0% expired sevoflurane in a mixture of oxygen and nitrous oxide 50/50%. Evidence on this subject is scarce, but the study by von Ungern-Sternberg et al. Fig. min-height: 0px; Laryngospasm (luh-RING-o-spaz-um) is a condition in which your vocal cords suddenly spasm (involuntarily contract or seize). These are the reasons why inhalational induction conducted by nonspecialized anesthetists remains associated with an increased risk of laryngospasm.2,5,18In children with hyperactive airways, there are now several arguments in favor of IV induction with propofol versus inhalational induction. Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. These are usually rare events and recurrence is uncommon, but if it happens, try to relax. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. Am J Med 2001; 111(Suppl 8A):69S77S, Shannon R, Baekey DM, Morris KF, Lindsey BG: Brainstem respiratory networks and cough. . As a result, your airway becomes temporarily blocked, making it difficult to breathe or speak.

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